Help identifying som crystals

Hi there, I have found some very interresting minerals when out rockhounding in my backyard in Norway, and they are kind of a puzzle to identify. So I Wonder if someone can help. Im not saying a whole lot of what I think yet, but they are found in a location just a few kilometers away from an actual emerald mine and the area is well known for both iron, emeralds, and not far from where there once was an old goldmine.

This is the writings telling something about the geological history of the area when searching for mjosa area in Wikipedia:

Geologically, Mjøsa is a complex area consisting of, among other things, Permian deep rocks, Permian sandstone (sparagmite), gneiss, granite, slate and limestone.[12][20][21]

There is a high radon risk in parts of the area.[22][23] Alum shale from bedrock and loose masses[24] is the main source.[25] The alum shale was formed in the late Cambrian and early Ordovician. Uranium-rich granite and granitic gneisses are also possible sources. In some areas on both sides of Mjøsa, the advice is to exercise “particularly high caution”[26]

Mjøsa is located in a valley that has been dug out of the ice through several ice ages. The geological process that created the underwater valley is the same as for a fjord. A glacial arm roughed out mass, leaving a rock sill and an ice front delta damming the lake.[27] Moraine deposition from the glacier front on Mjøsbreen 9,200 years ago has formed the Minnesundtrinnet, a broad front delta formed by the glacier rivers.[28] Mjøsa is a flooded, over-deepened U-valley. The over-deepening means that the bottom in the inner part of the fjord is deeper than at the mouth.[29] Mjøsa is a so-called fjord lake[30][31]

Mjøsa’s greatest depth is 453 metres, outside the steep Skreiaberget (Skreiafjellet).[13] The bottom is therefore more than 300 m below sea level. The reason lies in the fact that the lake was formed by glacial erosion, which is the only erosion process that allows the bottom to remain below sea level.[32]

The sea’s highest level since the last ice age, the marine boundary, is measured at 192 m above sea level. at Minnesund[33][34]. To the north in Mjøsa and in areas around Mjøsa that lie below a calculated marine boundary, there is “little or no marine influence”. The ice front lay at Minnesund and blocked the sea. The uplift was large during the ice melt. When the fjord basin became ice-free, the land had risen so much that the sea’s shoreline was lower than Mjøsa.[35] The area from Minnesund southwards to the sea is characterized by marine influence on areas below the marine boundary.[33] South of Minnesund lay what has been called “Romeriksfjorden”, the sea stretched to Mjøsbreen south of Mjøsa and to the northern end of Lake Hurdalsjøen.[28]

A little north of Minnesund, there are emerald mines that were operated for a few years around 1900.[36]

The rocks that contains these crystals in a variety of different colors and in a fairly large amount is solid, very heavy, and is very hard

Lookin forward to get opinions on what this might be

Best regards Lene

Ps I have loads of pictures so feel free to ask for more detailed visual clues

Thank you for the description of the area and its geological history. It makes me contemplate a visit to Norway! Your crystal hosting rock looks very much like a pegmatite. You don’t have any indication of size and I would suggest your photographs need to include a metric scale so viewers can get an idea of the crystal sizes etc. Comparative hardness tests as well as color and crystal shapes (if any) should indicate which crystals are sapphire, beryl, quartz, tourmaline, topaz and zircon. Note that highly radioactive zircon is green. Heating tests are useful as well but destructive. A magnet will attract magnetite and some garnets. Checking for radioactivity in minerals really requires a scintillomer rather than a geiger counter which is relatively insensitive to most gemstone. Your local University may be able to lend you one. Happy hunting!

I am just an enthusiastic rockhound too, not going to try naming any of this… could take away from your fun discovering which minerals they might be too.
However I suggest you have a look on and search for Byrud… There are 59 minerals listed for that mine, so chances are you might find them outside the mine too.
Have fun,


impossible to ID from photos. The host rock is quite dark and suggests a metamorphic process, with mafic minerals present, unless secondary iron stain from weathering occurred. the large crystals suggest that it could be pegmatitic. The best answer would be to have a geologist from a local univeristy to identify the host rock and the minerals. The second best, absent a geologist, would be to get a detailed geological map of the area with all of the different rock types present and pin point on that map where your specimens came from…the geoloy of the mountains is Norway is very complicated as they involved more than one continental collision with north America… most of the crystalline basement rock on both sides of the atlantic are metamoprphic, with some few exposures of preexisting very old continental crust (archean). High grade metamorrphism will result in partial melting and the formation of granitic rocks and pegmatitites. Your rock specimen looks pretty complex, so a geologist would be the best bet. Also note that the Oslo area, did undergo crustal extension following the first continental collision…crustal extension occurs frequently follwing the relaxation of crustal compression both in a collision setting and in back arc extension with subduction. That has resulted in the emplacement of alkalic igneous rocks which are often the source of rare earths, ores both precious metal and base and some other unusual minerals that trend towards being silica undersaturated…

PS: the geology of Norway is very complex… that’s why you can find some many different ores and minerals there… hapopy gem hunting and Merry Chirstmas!