I agree with chrisa, you can look up the Wikipedia article on hardness and looking at the table, just make your own set. Fingernail, copper penny, piece of iron, piece of steel, piece of glass, piece of quartz, possibly a piece of clear topaz, a piece of synthetic corundum and a piece of CZ rough. If you have access to other gem roughs, such as garnet or tourmaline, these might fill in the intermediate steps. You could even get a diamond nailfile for #10!
With the steel, you'll have to determine if it is garden variety or something very hardened, which would be higher on the scale. Same is true of the glass, as there are very soft glasses and some that are harder. By scratching the various samples with each other, you will establish a hierarchy and an approximate hardness for each. Some, like quartz, are going to be a definite value to test the others against. This is a great way to learn. Remember that these hardnesses are only approximate and are for separations where the hardness of two alternatives is a good bit different.
You might want to make friends with some people in the local gem club. The faceters will have pieces of various synthetic gems to give you or sell to you cheaply. Synthetic corundum is about ten cents a carat and synthetic quartz is similar in cost, ditto CZ.