When Nigeria and Mozambique copper bearing tourmalines came on the market, laboratories had to make certain compromises based on pressure from the industry. Thus many years back in deliberations, the LMHC (laboratory manual harmonization codes) group of labs (GIA, SSEF, Gubelin, ICA, and others) decided it was okay to put “Paraiba” on their reports to include all these other country sources. So you can only imagine that in the general market it is a free for all.
Some labs like AGL or SGL will not directly state Paraiba as the variety (unless it is from Brazil), and will only mention in their lab comments section regarding the other sources that, “these copper bearing tourmalines may be referred to as paraiba-type in the trade”. Note the lower case and hyphen “paraiba-type”.
It is easy enough for an experienced, advanced laboratory to determine the country of origin separating the three different sources. This is based on chemical ratios. However, it does take sophisticated equipment and background knowledge.
D.L., your question about the manganese is good. Yes, all the paraiba type tourmalines need to have manganese in order for the copper to activate those neon colors. This typically happens in the heating process.